Diabetes mellitus (DM) which is commonly referred as diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugars over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar are frequent urination, increased hunger and increased thirst. If you leave diabetes untreated, it can cause many complications. Acute complications are diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications are cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney failure, damage to the eyes, stroke and foot ulcers.
Diabetes generally comes due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin which a body needs. This was previously referred as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. The cause of this DM is unknown.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus begins with insulin resistance results from a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may result. This form was previously referred as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The cause of this DM is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
Type 3 Diabetes
Type 3 Gestational diabetes is the third main form and it occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar.
BYDUREON is an injectable prescription medicine that may improve blood sugar (glucose) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and should be used along with diet and exercise.
Ertugliflozin works by blocking a protein in the kidneys called sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2). SGLT2 is a protein that absorbs glucose from the urine back into the bloodstream as the blood is filtered in the kidneys.
GLYXAMBI is a prescription medicine that contains 2 diabetes medicines, empaglifl ozin (JARDIANCE) and linagliptin (TRADJENTA) . GLYXAMBI can be used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes when treatment with both empagliflozin (JARDIANCE) and linagliptin (TRADJENTA) is appropriate.
JARDIANCE is a prescription medicine used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes. JARDIANCE is not for people with type 1 diabetes.
KAZANO contains 2 prescription diabetes medicines, alogliptin (NESINA) and metformin hydrochloride. KAZANO is a prescription medicine used with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar (glucose) control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Lyxumia is a diabetes medicine that contains the active substance lixisenatide. It is available as a solution for injection in a pre – filled pen that provide s either 10 micrograms or 20 micrograms of lixisenatide in each dose .
NESINA is an FDA- approved prescription medication, that along with diet and exercise, can be taken orally once daily to help improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
TRULICITY ™ is a glucagon – like peptide (GLP – 1) receptor agonist indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus .
Vipidia tablets contain the active ingredient alogliptin, which is a type of medicine called a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. It is used to treat people with type 2 diabetes.